Production: Prosecco Superiore is 90% frizzante and 10% still wine, which is locally called tranquillo. We did have a chance to taste the latter and I found it to be a gentle aromatic white.
Grapes: Prosecco Superiore is produced from a minimum of 85% Glera with a maximum of 15% other local grapes that include Verdiso, Perera, Bianchetta, and Glera Lunga. A maximum of 15% of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir can also be legally used, but only for the frizzante wines.
Topography: the most surprising aspect (more like shocking) of the Conegliano- Valdobbiadene region is the topography, which is completely different from the endless sea of flatland vineyards that make up the DOC region. The vineyard aspect in the Superiore zone is somewhere between the middle Mosel and the Douro Valley. In many places, most notably the single vineyard Cartizze (the region’s gem), the aspect of the vines are easily beyond a black diamond ski slope. One immediately makes the connection to the necessity of endless hours of hand labor and a new sense of value in the wines.
Climate and rainfall: generally, the Prosecco Superiore region has a mild climate with an average mean temperature of 54 degrees F., and an average rainfall at 49 inches. Conegliano tends to be warmer and drier making for richer wines. Valdobbiadene has a wider diurnal shift with the wines displaying racier acidity.
Soils: soil types for the Conegliano area are primarily comprised of clay and limestone with a mix of alluvial and glacial. The soils of Valdobbiadene consist of moraines, sandstone and clay.
Harvest: the harvest takes place in mid-September to early October, and practically all the vineyards are hand-harvested as the steep terrain simply doesn’t allow for machine harvesting. Generally, the vineyards of Conegliano are harvested first with those in Valdobbiadene typically later. Yields for the entire region are set at a maximum of 13.5 tonnes per hectare.
Winemaking: by law, a maximum of 70 liters of must can be extracted from 100 K grapes. After pressing, the must is allowed to settle and clarify at 41-50 degrees F. Primary fermentation takes place in stainless steel over the course of 15-20 days at temperatures between 64-68 degrees F. After primary fermentation, the base wines are blended into cuvée. The secondary fermentation takes place over 25-60 days with temperatures ranging between 59 and 64 degrees F. At end, the temperature is taken down to 32 degrees F to leave some residual sugar in the wine. Before bottling, the new wines undergo a tasting exam by a Consorzio panel. The new wine can legally be released for sale 30-40 days after bottling and the addition of the DOCG seal, which lists an individual number for each bottle that can be tracked back to the winery.
Styles of Prosecco Superiore: Prosecco Superiore is made in three different styles designated by residual sugar content: Brut, Extra Dry and Dry. Residual sugar levels range from up to 12 grams per liter for Brut, 12-17 grams for Extra Dry, and more than 17 grams for Dry. Personally, I found the dryness/sweetness levels of Brut and Extra Dry similar to that of Champagnes labeled the same. Dry Prosecco Superiore reminds me of Moscato di Asti in style.
The Prosecco Hierarchy of Quality
• Prosecco DOC
The base appellation for Prosecco wine made in the region of Treviso.
• Prosecco Superiore DOCG
The “classico” region comprised of the three villages of Conegliano, Valdobbiadene, and Asolo. The latter produces a much smaller quantity of wine than the other two.
• Prosecco Superiore Rive DOCG
Prosecco Rive can only be applied to sparkling wines. The term “Rive” in local dialect translates as, “vineyards planted on steep land.” It applies to wines made from one of 43 specific single vineyards in the Coneglio-Valdobiaddene district. Wines designated as Rive must list the name of the village as well as the vintage on the label.
• Prosecco Superiore di Cartizze DOCG
Cartizze is considered the “grand cru” of Prosecco. It was officially recognized in 1969 when the DOC zone was established. Cartizze is comprised of 106 hectares (164 acres) of remarkably steep vineyards in the Valdobbiadene communes of San Pietro di Barbozza, Santo Stefano, and Saccol. This small area is a perfect combination of mild climate, aspect and soils. It’s also among the most expensive vineyard real estate on the planet with a single hectare valued at over one million Euros.
Giancarlo Vettorello, director of the Consorzio, told us the wines from Conegliano tend to have more structure while wines from Valdobbiadene have more perfumed aromatics. Generally, I found that to be true but also found the overall quality to be outstanding with the wines fresh, vibrant, and delicious. Here are some of my favorites.
1. NV Conte Collalto Brut: quite dry for Prosecco with very good structure and length.
2. 2010 Zardetto Brut Tre Venti Rive di Ogliano: very floral and forward on the nose with lots of intensity and minerality on the palate. Very good.
3. NV Cantine Maschio Brut, Rive di Colbertaldo: pronounced fresh tropical fruit and tart citrus on the nose. Brut style with a delicious balance of fruit and acid with the right touch of residual sweetness.
4. 2010 Sorelle Bronca Brut Particella 68: aromatic floral nose with notes of Asian pear, Kiwi, and almond. Very good structure and length on the plate.
5. 2010 Astoria Extra Dry: tart apple and Asian pear with white flowers and a touch spice. Juicy and vibrant on the palate.
6. NV Furlan Extra Dry: very floral with spice and almond notes. A delicious touch of residual on the palate; like bottled springtime.
7. NV La Farra Extra Dry: green fruits, fennel bulb, and anise. Delicious balance of fruit, tart acidity, and residual sweetness.
8. NV Spagnol Extra Dry: floral and fennel/smoke notes on the nose with pronounced mineral on the palate.
9. NV Consorzio Cartizze Dry: the most concentrated wine of the flight. Orange citrus, ginger spice, and lots of white flowers.